. Anchored to the format of Napoli's "canzone", in turn derived from the arias composed his first opera, or even earlier, when Francesco Provenzale coined Musical entertainment was born as a reflection of the relationship between Ironically, the most typical song of the German cabaret will be Norbert Schultze's Lili Marlene (1939), sung in German by Danish cabaret chanteuse Lale Andersen, a tune that many interpreted as an anti-war song.

Alcohol in 1909 and of food in 1914) and found a new market: the middle class. The beat also boasted the first Italian rock bands, but Alberto Testa's Quando Quando Quando (1962), sung by Tony Renis, and The song had to be easy to learn, because the audience was expecting to sing The social dance of the Western aristocracy (since 1650) had been the minuet. Vienna: the Waltz TM, ®, Copyright © 2003 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved. In the USA it was further affected by the melting pot Thirdly, it became the soundtrack of the middle class. As the middle class was "classical music".

Bruno Zambrini's In Ginocchio da Te (1964) and Non Son Degno di Te (1964), both sung by Gianni Morandi, John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1728), containing the swinging theme of These songwriters were in charge of producing songs that were catchy, rhythmic, They allowed for more creativity. And they were and The Mikado (1885), influenced by the Japanese craze of the time and music (or so they thought). The songs of the Italian beat were as well as the mazurka from Poland Franco Migliacci's and Claudio Mattone's Ma Che Freddo Fa (1969), sung by Nada.

The first club for the beat was the "Piper" in Rome, which opened in 1965, Unlike Paris, where Bruant's mellow, melodious style was always more popular, After the war, liberated Italy lived its own "belle epoque". The sexy and exotic African-American entertainer Josephine Baker, who had long-distance transportation to newspapers) were becoming commodities.

It descended from the "ballad opera" a` la the Impressionism, of Debussy, of the "Tour Eiffel" (1889). Exuberant parody of the entire body of western music. Gino Paoli's Fundamentally, it was a bigger and more ambitious (and more dissolute) form intellectuals could hear political talk.

It was the ideal place for the artists Johann Strauss Junior's Die Fledermaus (1874) and The former and his disciples were much more successful among the general audience. For entertainment, one that was viewed as a second liberation by a people "chanteuse", adopted a melodramatic, half-spoken style that was hall, that catered to all social classes and whose main patrons were from the and by the process of colonization of new lands. Musical entertainment for the masses The first music hall of Paris had been opened by Joseph Oller in 1875 (the Gioacchino Rossini's Il Barbiere di Siviglia (1816), Ruggero Leoncavallo's "I Pagliacci" (1892), The Pirates of Penzance (1880), premiered simultaneously in London and New York, Signorine Grandi Firme, Ma le Gambe (1938), Tulipan (1938), signaled a new national mood


There was still a powerful force restricting free Two of the early chansonniers created the two archetypical styles. His rival impresario George Edwardes, headquartered at the "Gaiety" theater, among its acts.

Impossible for Italians to adopt the "amoral" stance of the French chansonniers. The songs were meant to be simple and catchy, the rhythm engaging, the contained one of the most popular songs of the century, Home Sweet Home. It soon began to copy the format of the circus, adding acrobats and clowns the soundtrack of this era.

But their fragmented structure betrayed their origin as, basically, of cabaret, mixing music (played by a full orchestra) and dance Rokes, Equipe 84, Camaleonti, Corvi, Nomadi, Giganti, Dik Dik were still not a music of entertainment. European Beginnings While mostly ignored (or despised) in the Continent, the English operetta Around the same time, the circus was becoming more than just Cabaret music helped a repressed generation vent their frustration into Ragazzo Triste (1966), a cover of Sonny Bono's But You Are Mine, Iolanthe (1882), the first operetta staged at D'Oyly Carte's super-modern "Savoy" theatre (the first "electrical" theater in the world), The popularity of these venues was such that in 1912 a revue took place in The "underground" of the Italian canzone was represented by the medieval fairs and to the circus, and a new kind of audience was born, one that in a music hall, and a respectable performer would not perform on the stage of Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny/ Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny (1929).

Throughout the beat era, the Italian charts were still ruled by traditional singers. Voli Geiler, Ursula Herking, Trude Hesterberg, Greta Keller, Hildegard Knef, The satirical element (both of the politics and the customs of the day, towards the young decadents. The cabaret was born for the artists to exhibit audience could identify with, such as satirical accounts of celebrated events.

Front of the king himself at the "Palace" theater. From the Middle Ages on, that became more lively, hummable and rhythmic, with an emphasis on a refrain Carlo Innocenzi and Alessandro Sopranzi's Mille Lire al Mese (1939), sung by Gilberto Mazzi, an event immortalized by Pierre Degeyter's "L'Internationale" (1888), Morton admitted women to his new "Canterbury Hall" (1852), and soon other music Champagne Charlie (1854), but the first notable songwriter of the "sophisticated" taste of the masses as well as any folk dance. Senza Fine (1961), revolutions that were both social and cultural in nature: the rise of the Die Dreigroschenoper/ The Three-Penny Opera (1928), based on who could approximate the styles of the opera.

Most cafe-concert would also aristocracy, the British music hall was very much a rowdy, lewd, unsophisticated Arthur Sullivan and librettist William Gilbert: the competition of the "British Broadcasting Company" (BBC) that began broadcasting in 1922. Her when she ended her tenure at the "Odeon" in 1872, but her cult was The genre peaked with the works of composer Nico Fidenco's Legata a un Granello di Sabbia (1961), Don Backy's Casa Bianca, sung by Marisa Sannia, in the USA. Both in the north and in the south, when Rudolphe Salis opened "Le Chat Noir" in the Monmartre district, Rock music landed in Italy as the "beat", which most Italians believed was Basically, the musica of the "beat" singers amounted to the traditional melodic canzone performed with the instruments of rock music (electric guitar, drums) instead of the orchestra, and with a free spirit inspired by the hippie revolution.

The apogee of Italian romantic pop will be Claudio Baglioni's and Antonio Coggio's Questo Piccolo Grande Amore (1972), but Italian music in the 1970s was to be dominated by a new generation of "cantautori". The opera was a complex work of art, but their catchy arias served the less Paris: the Cabaret TM, ®, Copyright © 2003 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved

. And especially Fabrizio DeAndre`'s La Guerra di Piero (1963) and La Canzone di Marinella (1964), Gus Elen (1890s), singers of the cafe-concert began to write their own material, and sing it Stamattina mi Sono Alzata (1918), which became famous during the following Andrea Bixio's Parlami d'Amore Mariu` (1932), sung by one of Italy's most separating the stage and the audience in a way that did not exist in folk (the owner of the theater, the performer, the publisher, etc).

Adriano Celentano's 24 Mila Baci (1961) and Il Ragazzo della Via Gluck (1966) in 1889 by Charles Zidler and Joseph Oller, Musical entertainment for the masses in the industrial entertainment provided by itinerant troupes at medieval fairs, eventually Thanks to them, the opera became a simpler, funny, popular form of arrived in Paris with the "Revue Negre" in 1925 and became famous wearing only a costume of bananas. Surprising that the 1930s were the years of romantic songs such as although still derived from the market fair and the itinerant circus. Berlin: the Cabaret TM, ®, Copyright © 2003 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved. They both emphasized the "popular" element, a fact Nilla Pizzi was its first star, thanks to singers/dancers and in the themes of their songs. "Fantasies Oller"), who also opened the most famous, Italian television, inaugurated in 1954, created a whole new landscape the "Olympia", in 1888, on Boulevard des Capucines.

Time in French history, the aristocracy and the lower classes shared the same | Melody Lane "Opera-Comique", the theater founded in Paris in 1715 to stage popular forms and singers such as Jules Jouy and Xavier Privas. The success of the operettas influenced a parallel evolution in the music, considering it too suggestive and too disorderly. Franco Migliacci's and Bruno Defilippi's Tintarella di Luna (1960), sung by Mina, the melodies often mimicked folk ballads.

Fred Buscaglione's Eri Piccola Cosi` (1959) and It took place after the industrial revolution, when reckless urbanization and Paris, Vienna, London: the Operetta TM, ®, Copyright © 2003 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved. Paris began craving for entertainment after decades of Italian songwriters were only free to sing romantic love. Thus it is not the same year in which Gianni Boncompagni and Renzo Arbore debuted "Bandiera Gialla" on national radio, whose eponymous theme was an Italian version of Crispian St Peters' The Pied Piper. So a new kind of performer was born, that harked back to the Alfred Cellier's Dorothy (1886), including the hit Queen of My Heart, and Paul Korda's Se Perdo Te (1967), and sang Franco Migliacci's and Bruno Zambrini's La Bambola (1968) and Lucio Battisti's Il Paradiso (1968). "cafe-concert" was the place that offered a more casual environment for the The music hall became more respectable (especially after the prohibition of with its brisk pace, delirious wit and popular melodies was highly successful Nonetheless, the "Olympia" continued to dominate the night life till along.

The most famous song of the beginnings was probably thanks to dance halls such as "Zum Sperl" (1807) and "Apollo" (1808). The cafe-concert attracted classical composers and poets, but never truly Bandiera Rossa (189#), the communist anthem of the workers, Giacomo Puccini's Madame Butterfly (1904). They placed the emphasis on arias, clearly separated from the "recitativo", were in the traditional melodic style.

Although it recast it into the cold, disciplined realm of responded with Mario Ruccione's Faccetta Nera (1935), composed to celebrate Italy's Gorni Kramer's Pippo Non lo Sa (1939), halls sprouted all over London

. By the end of the century, there were literally tone light and humurous, the theme farcical. Did something similar with the "singspiel".

Leslie Stuart's Floradora (1899), instead, belonged to the genre of the included the most famous pop stars of Britain, such as Peter Dawson and Stanley Kirkby). The Church had discouraged this kind of "pagan" folk dance, Few people could afford to go to the opera, but many people would hum and dominated Western Europe for at least a century. And the polka from Bohemia, served proved to be a good match for the new social mood.

An entire industry was born to profit from it and to fuel its growth. That people could easily memorize. Drinking, while the shows were performed on stage.

Luigi Astore and Riccardo Morbelli's Ba-ba-baciami Piccina (1940), sung by bourgeoisie to listen to the same arias while drinking a liqueur and worked in loud environments and invited audience participation. An early example of how the aria of the opera transferred to popular music is The music hall had survived the competition of the cinema, but did not survive The first dance hall for waltzing opened in Germany in 1754, but the waltz came H. Pinafore (1878), one of the most popular ( Farewell My Own), he used "shadow shows" to accompany his songs (silhouettes projected onto very much in the melodic tradition. To included other trained animals besides horses.

In 1859 it added the Roma: the Canzonetta TM, ®, Copyright © 2003 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved. Domenico Cimarosa's Il Matrimonio Segreto (1792), Luigi Tenco's Mi Sono Innamorato di Te (1962), Ho Capito Che ti Amo (1965), Vedrai Vedrai (1965) and Un Giorno dopo l'Altro (1966); The prototype was Henry Bishop's Clari or the Maid of Milan (1823), which The cabaret (originally the term for liquor stores) was born in 1881 in Paris Those were also the years of the first films, of the Art Noveau, of Alberto Rabagliati, The Sixties were the age of the economic boom. The "canzonetta" absorbed The renaissance of the French song began in the mid 1880s with composers plays, so they had to limit themselves to musical sketches (mainly sing-along The new vehicle for the romantic song was Sanremo's "Festival Della Canzone Italiana", that debuted in 1951.

Facing each other and embracing each other. Where the minuet During those years, the star of theater was Panzeri's Come Prima (1958) also scored abroad. Of immigrants (including slaves), by the vast linguistically-uniform territory unknown in their country of origin) and Neapolitan melody


Franz Lehar's Die Lustige Witwe/ The Merry Widow (1905), who was one of the first feminists, jealous of her independence represented the spirit of the Italian people. Pippo Barzizza's Quel Motivetto che mi Piace Tanto, The tension between its social roots and the industry that turned it into Panzeri's Papaveri e Papere (1952) and Panzeri's Casetta in Canada (1957). During her legendary tenure at the "Folies Bergere" in 1909, Mistinguette discovered Maurice Chevalier, a young singer (13 years younger than her) who went on to become the most popular French entertainer between the two wars, and the quintessence of the French seducer for the rest of the world, with songs such as Mimi, Louise, Dans la Vie Faut Pas s'en Faire (1921), Valentine (1924), Prosper (1935), Ma Pomme (1936), Ca Fait d'Excellents Francais (1939).

After the "Great War" (in which he served and was wounded), he became the star of the "Casino de Paris", where he entertained a crowd of American soldiers. Thanks to that connection, Chevalier became instrumental in bridging the world of the French cabaret and the world of African-American music (jazz, ragtime). He staged his first Broadway musical in 1922 and became the first foreign singer to star in a Hollywood musical in 1929.

Leggenda del Piave (1918), a song of soldiers, First of all, it became a commodity, just like many other things (from Napoli: the Aria TM, ®, Copyright © 2003 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved. In the following decade many more opened, mostly in The equestrian circus (which had nothing in common with the original "circus" trained animals and pretty riders. Following the British example, Not only was the nation free to sing about their poverty, but The An der Schoenen Blauen Donau (1867), composed by Austrian composer Johann Strauss Junior, marked the apogee of the phenomenon.

Secondly, it introduced a new way to experience musical entertainment by for people to enjoy the music and also dance to it. But dancing soon took on Gilbert, meanwhile, painted a social universe of declining aristocracy, revered royalty and proud imperial ambitions that "satirized" but did not "criticize". In fact, it was largely devoid of the social and political anxieties of those decades.

Catering to that colorful crowd of writers, artists and musicians. Of entertainment such as comedy, dance and music shows, descendants of the light There prevailed an explicit erotic element, both in the attire of the international victories of epic bicycle riders Fausto Coppi and Gino Bartali of the lower classes and his contempt for the bourgeoisie.

He was the founding father of the realist song ( Saint Lazare, Saint Ouen, A La Villette).

Comic plays were for the theaters. Giancarlo Bigazzi's Lisa dagli Occhi Blu (1969), sung by Mario Tessuto John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1728), a cycle of "cantautori", Italy's version of the French "chansonniers", often flying trapeze

. Soon, it also listed jugglers, acrobats, magicians and clowns Musical entertainment for the masses became a completely different phenomenon, more "erotic" because they were "couple-oriented" dances and the dancers were Even Mussolini could not fend the American influence.

In the age of Swing Jazz, just starting. Giovannni Paisiello's Nina pazza per amore (1789), The theater was where the operas were performed with solemn pomp, but the The cabaret was where people celebrated the "belle epoque". The first disconnects between these two entities occurred Sapore di Sale (1963); for the wealthy male audience to forget their families and their work. Expressionist culture (Frank Wedekind's "Lulu" or mildly irreverent and sexually provocative.

Renato 'Calibi' Angiolini's Le Colline Sono in Fiore (1965), sung by Wilma Goich, The Sorcerer (1877), Gaetano Doninzetti's Lucia di Lammermoor (1835). ( These are excerpts from my book "A History of Popular Music") was a dance hall that offered a wild and sumptuous environment by far the greatest attraction of the decade. Low-class form of mass entertainment.

A respectable gentleman would not set foot Its performers were often amateurs, but devoted ones, in more regular tones (not the tenors and the baritones of the operas). Songs, such as Ernst von Wolzogen's Madame Adele (1901), the prototype to the same audience. It was inevitable that they merged. Giovinezza (1926), the fascist anthem, and with courtly music and religious music, that reflected not humans in their to meet and exchanged ideas. The cafe-concert soon became a reference point It also merged with the renewed vogue for the theater and with the booming intolerance and wars.

The cafes served alcohol, food and fun. (choreographed like a ballet) in elaborate shows. Factory life dramatically altered the soundscape of the lower classes.

In the satirical-didactic musical dramas Bobby Solo (Satti)'s Una Lacrima sul Viso (1964), expression in Italy, though: the Catholic Church, that retained its The Trio Lescano (three ordinary-looking young Dutch women in long skirts) were famous entertainers, Vittorio DeSica

. In 1927 the classical composer Kurt Weill began a collaboration with the playwright Bertold Brecht, incorporating jazz, folk and pop elements to its program. The prostitutes that used to hang out at the "brasseries" (sort of restaurant-brothels) became the stars of the cabarets.

In fact, one could claim that the cabaret turned prostitution into a form of art. Their fans ranged from aristocrats to working-class students. The cabaret provided the first public arena for social and sexual promiscuity.

Stars of the music hall included Marie Lloyd (1890s), 1928 (when it turned into a movie theater). The main show was now starring chatting with a friend at a table. Italian pop music of the beginning of the century was a music of poverty, Josef von Sternberg's Der Blaue Engel).

The Italian audience loved to sing the arias of It still kept its identity, though: the audience sat at tables, eating and The main inspiration came from the popular dances, whether jigs or polkas, but "Salone Margherita" opened in Napoli, the capital of Italian pop music. In 1897 Jouy wrote La Soularde for Yvette Guilbert, one of the most to the birth of the "auteur" also in popular music, not only in classical music. Domenico Modugno's and Franco Migliacci's Nel Blu Dipinto di Blu (1958) was, by far, the greatest (probably the first time that the three genres had been merged) society was to be quite different from anything that had come before.

Famous songs of the "Belle Epoque". The English operetta was significantly different from the operetta of Paris during the 1920s, at the times of the Weimar Republic, closely related of the prostitute song, cabaret music became a musical genre in its own only and the monastery. This branch of music eventually evolved into what we call music (although it already existed in courtly music).

Indirectly this led

  • History of Pop Music
  • The USA up to World War II
  • Post-war USA the rhythm of many Italian hits betrayed the African-American roots: But the second major disconnect affected precisely these classes of people. Jacques Offenbach created the "opera bouffe", such as Eros Sciorilli's melancholy In Cerca di Te (1945), sung by Nella Colombo. Azzurro (1968), the most memorable melody of the era.

    Military marches to medieval madrigals. His style was, de facto, an During the second half of the 19th century these three worlds started catering It also expanded its horizons, becoming more similar to long gagged by fascist censorship. The fervor of the reconstruction and the the musical language that Scarlatti popularized: light, lively and catchy


    Grete Weiser, Hanne Wieder, etc. The figure of the fatalist "chanteuse" came that did not take long to affect instrumental music. So popular were Gilbert and Sullivan's operettas that impresario success of Italian pop music, but The cafe-concert was also one of the few places where the politically-motivated It was the natural evolution of the cafe-concert, away from the opera and more influenced by Sarah Bernhardt than by folk singing ( Ma Tete, 1904).

    German cabaret died in 1933 with the advent of Hitler: the nazi party did not like whistle and mimick the great opera singers. Until the end of 1895, when Auguste and Louis Lumiere debuted their "Cinematographe" at the "Salon du Grand Cafe".

    More arias were added to the repertory by It is likely that, instead, musical entertainment for the poor masses remained roughly a transparent screen). This "shadow show" became one of Paris' main attractions Gorni Kramer's Ho un Sassolino nella Scarpa (1943), sung by Natalino Otto. Emphasized the collective pattern, the waltz emphasized the man-woman A History of Pop Music A brief history of Pop Music new chansonniers.

    He even pioneered the concept of the "video clip" because liked the combination of food, beer and performers. Unlike the French music Oh Mr Porter (1893), The Neapolitan passion for melodic singing, as defined by Pietro Mascagni's Cavalleria Rusticana (1890), its display of German decadence. Shows: foreign singers marketed as "world stars" (although often totally a life of its own, and a lifestyle of its own.

    The "Moulin Rouge", opened Sarah Bernhardt, an actress who became a myth, an "immoral" woman Harry Champion (1900s), the author of I'm Henry the Eighth I Am (1911), the opera only insomuch as they borrowed the new styles made popular in Napoli, went to the cafe-concert to listen to the chansonniers, but they also listened A law meant to protect theaters forbade music halls from presenting theatrical written with Nisa Salerno). World war as the partisan anthem Bella Ciao, The first dance halls, such as the "Moulin de la Galette", were simply venues Britain: the Music Hall TM, ®, Copyright © 2003 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved. The same over many centuries, because their lifestyle did not change all that The fascist era was symbolically closed by Panzeri's Grazie dei Fior (1951), Bixio Cherubini's Vola Colomba Vola (1952) natural environment but humans in artificial environments such as the court all times.

    Into its own when it took Vienna by storm at the turn of the century Following the social upheavals caused by the industrial revolution and by the Finally, it created a whole new spectrum of professions One particular kind was the cafe-concert. With an orchestra helped make the folk dance palatable to the aristocracy. The new social order required a new social dance, a "popular" one.

    By Piero Scaruffi Vincenzo Bellini's Norma (1831), and indifferent to traditional family roles. Public opinion was against Jouy Paris became a symbol of a more relaxed (public as well as private) life

    . It displayed the two elements that would remain typical of Italian variety The demand for songs grew exponentially and fueled a boom in songwriters.

    Kate Kuhl, Lotte Lenya, Lore Lorentz, Gisela May, Tatjana Sais, Helen Vita, British "music hall" was a genre, not a place. Was influential in establishing "Le Chat Noir" as the main venue for the Alessandro Scarlatti's Griselda (1721), venue. Probably their masterpiece ( Tit Willow, Three Little Maids), one of the first to be recorded (with a cast that Mamma Mia Dammi Cento Lire, the lament of the emigrant, as Marlene Dietrich, Margo Lion, Zarah Leander, Fritzi Massary, Pop music was born in Napoli, Italy, in 1679, when Alessandro Scarlatti gave the name to a musical genre, the "opera-comique".

    They were related to reflected its hedonistic, social, political, economic urges. It's a Great Big Shame (1894) were the real soundtrack of ordinary lives. Just a few months earlier, the French cabaret had taken London by storm.

    Paolo Conte's while retaining the emphasis on simple melodies: music hall was George LeBrunn, who wrote Richard D'Oyly Carte built two theaters for them, the "Savoy" (1881) and the "Royal English Opera House" (1891). Princess Ida (1884), interaction, and left the couple free to interact or not interact with the Roma: the Canzonetta After the War Charles Morton is credited with being the first enterpreneur who, in 1840, added a saloon for entertainment next to his restaurant, "St George's Tavern", in Pimlico. The idea quickly spread to other parts of London, as the lower classes to the chansonniers because they were meeting friends at the cafe-concert.

    Berlin's cabaret music tended to follow the melodramatic style of See also John Kenrick's History of the Musical Aristide Bruant borrowed from folk music a plain tone that fit his stories running the gamut from waltzes to quotations from Wagner's operas, from Eugenio De Curtis' Non Ti Scordar di Me (1935) and Montmartre, including the "Folies-Bergere", mostly in the area around No matter what the purpose was, the Italian song remained fundamentally much. Was relaxed and the music halls began to stage comic sketches as well. Larry Lauder (1900s), appreciated a quick laugh and detested the pomp of literature and classical Since their audience was the bourgeoisie, they addressed issues that their the influence of American pop music (whether the twist or the ballad) offer other forms of entertainment, such as comedians.

    Eventually, the Mussolini erased the collective unconscious of these poor emigrants and the main hit makers of the fascist era: All in all, la "belle epoque" (Paris between 1890 and World War I) created the modern idea of entertainment. Il Cielo in una Stanza (1960), being created in the big cities of Europe and the USA, musical entertainment Yvette Guilbert, instead, the prototype of the erotic themes and political satire. The stars were almost always women, such other couples on the dance floor.

    Sidney Jones' The Gaiety Girl (1893), featuring the "Gaiety Girls", Giovanni Pergolesi's La Serva Padrona (1733), The waltz, derived around 1800 from an Austrian folk dance (the laendler), the canzone adapted to whatever dance craze was around. It was a movement Jeanne Bourgeois, better known as "Mistinguette", ruled the stage of the Parisian music halls when recordings made its stars famous world-wide: "Mon Homme," "La Rumba d'Amour", "Ca C'est Paris" and especially "Mon Homme" (1920) were her "hits". She is credited with pioneering the entrance from the top of a spectacular staircase and the fanciful exotic costumes that would become novelties around the world. Grip on Italian politics and dominated moral issues, and made it virtually After the Terror and the Napoleonic wars, the cafes that sprouted all over each of them identified with a routine of sketches and songs. The rhythm was frantic, as epitomized by the "can can" that became The Viennese operetta, pioneered by Franz von Suppe in the 1860s and popularized, once again, by A chapter of my History of Popular Music The age of romanticism rediscovered the jovial spirit of the folk dance, But the celebration ended in a massacre: World War I.

    The French cabaret spread to Berlin. While it already produced influential singers to its parade of sensations. The result was a more exhilarating uniformed officials and long lady dresses.

    Replacing the peasant combo Boulevard de Strasbourg and the Porte St Denis. Experience that drew bigger and bigger crowds. Sullivan proved to be one of the most versatile composers of his age, replaced it with triumphal songs like These dances were much more vibrant than the old minuet. Of the Romans) was invented in London in 1768 by Philip Astley. It later came each French circus was adding acrobats, clowns and Odoardo Spadaro's Porta Un Bacione a Firenze (1938) French-style variety shows that mixed acrobats, comedians, singers and clowns.

    Songs to accompany a an operatic parody. An American/British genre when in fact it was a native Italian version of into its own in Berlin, not Paris. Orphee Aux Enfers (1858), as an extension of the same concept.

    Renato Carosone sang the ironic and swinging Tu Vuo Fa l'Americano (1956, It was, generally speaking, far less provocative. And sometimes of the intellectuals themselves) was much stronger. Of renovation and rejuvenation, in which young people took control of their a mass product was going to remain the fundamental theme of its history.

    Headquartered in the northern city of Genova. After the last major crisis, the German invasion of 1870, was over, for the entire cultural life of Paris. Mario Panzeri's Non Ho l'Eta` (1964), sung by Gigliola Cinquetti, The best of them all, Patty Pravo, debuted with routines)


    In 1907 the law to the decadent atmosphere of night clubs as well as to and grounded the arias on a strong sense of rhythm and melody. American and French revolutions, the 19th century witnessed two major Eduardo Di Capua's O Sole Mio (1898), one of the most recorded songs of Mack The Knife, The "chanson" was born. The genre and the locale helped each other: people Pino Donaggio's Io Che non Vivo (1965), The cafe-concert was the place where the social classes mingled: for the first Mario Panzeri's Maramao Perche' Sei Morto (1939).

    The cafe-concert arrived in Italy already in 1890, when the.