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  • ^ "Space Is the Place: Innovative Brooklyn rockers blast off to the future"
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    146 Blender asked Bowie in 2002 whether he still believed his public declaration was his biggest mistake. After a long pause, he said, "I don't think it was a mistake in Europe, but it was a lot tougher in America. I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual.

    But I had no inclination to hold any banners nor be a representative of any group of people. " Bowie said he wanted to be a songwriter and performer rather than a headline for his bisexuality, and in " puritanical" America, "I think it stood in the way of so much I wanted to do. " [305]

  • ^ "Stardust Memories – Without Tibet House, David Bowie never may have gotten Ziggy with it.

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  • ^ Keefe, Michael (16 October 2007). "David Bowie The Buddha of Suburbia"

    Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. In 1962, Bowie formed his first band at the age of 15, named the Konrads.

    Playing guitar-based rock and roll at local youth gatherings and weddings, the Konrads had a varying line-up of between four and eight members, Underwood among them. [20] When Bowie left the technical school the following year, he informed his parents of his intention to become a pop star. His mother arranged his employment as an electrician's mate.

    Frustrated by his bandmates' limited aspirations, Bowie left the Konrads and joined another band, the King Bees. He wrote to the newly successful washing-machine entrepreneur John Bloom inviting him to "do for us what Brian Epstein has done for the Beatles—and make another million. " Bloom did not respond to the offer, but his referral to Dick James's partner Leslie Conn led to Bowie's first personal management contract.


  • ^ a b Kelley, Seth (12 February 2017). "David Bowie's 'Blackstar' Wins All Five Nominated Categories at 2017 Grammys".
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    Bowie's catalog generated 51 million video views on Vevo on Monday, Jan. 11, the day after he died, making him the most viewed artist in a single day in the video-streaming platform's history, the company reported Thursday morning via a press release.

  • ^ "Vatican culture official pays tribute to David Bowie".

    Buckley called Bowie "both star and icon. The vast body of work he has produced . Has created perhaps the biggest cult in popular culture. His influence has been unique in popular culture—he has permeated and altered more lives than any comparable figure.

    " [248]

  • ^ "Interview: David Bowie".

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  • ^ Needs, Kris (January 2007). Mojo Classic ("60 Years of Bowie").

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  • ^ Paytress, Mark (5 November 2009). Bolan: The Rise and Fall of a 20th Century Superstar. London, England: Omnibus Press.

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  • ^ a b Sandford (1997): pp. 205–07
  • ^ Elle Hunt.

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  • ^ "Johnny Flynn to Play David Bowie in 'Stardust,' Marc Maron Also Attached".

    Musicologist James Perone credited Bowie with having "brought sophistication to rock music", and critical reviews frequently acknowledged the intellectual depth of his work and influence. [238] [243] [244] The Human League founder Martyn Ware remarked that he had lived his life "as though he were an art installation. " [245] The BBC's arts editor Will Gompertz likened Bowie to Pablo Picasso, writing that he was "an innovative, visionary, restless artist who synthesised complex avant garde concepts into beautifully coherent works that touched the hearts and minds of millions".

    [246] U2 lead singer Bono commented, "I like Bowie when he’s evenly pulled in the direction of being a pop star and Picasso, where he's right down the middle. That’s usually my favorite, when the songwriting is disciplined but the recording is not. I love when he's pulled equally in the directions of art and populism


    " [247]

  • ^ "RIAA Searchable Database: search for David Bowie". Recording Industry Association of America.

    After Bowie there has been no other pop icon of his stature, because the pop world that produces these rock gods doesn't exist any more. The fierce partisanship of the cult of Bowie was also unique—its influence lasted longer and has been more creative than perhaps almost any other force within pop fandom. Numerous figures from the music industry whose careers Bowie had influenced paid tribute to him following his death; panegyrics on Twitter (tweets about him peaked at 20,000 a minute an hour after his death) [245] also came from outside the entertainment industry and pop culture, such as those from the Vatican, namely Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi, who quoted "Space Oddity", and the Federal Foreign Office, which thanked Bowie for his part in the fall of the Berlin Wall and referenced "Heroes".

    [258] [259]

  • ^ "Lost Highway [Original Motion Picture Soundtrack]".
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    He sang in a duet of his 1971 song " Changes" with Butterfly Boucher for the 2004 animated film Shrek 2. [162]

  • ^ "Commencement 1999 - Berklee College of Music".

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    "David Bowie's Will Detailed, Ashes Scattered in Bali".

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    "Random Ultra-Violence: Simon Critchley On David Bowie".

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  • ^ Gompertz, Will (11 January 2016).

    "David Bowie: The Picasso of pop".

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  • ^ "V&A's David Bowie Is Exhibition Receives Its Millionth Visitor" (PDF) (Press release).

    Through continual reinvention, his influence broadened and extended. [249] Biographer Thomas Forget added, "Because he has succeeded in so many different styles of music, it is almost impossible to find a popular artist today that has not been influenced by David Bowie. " [250] In 2000, Bowie was voted by other music stars as the "most influential artist of all time" in a poll by NME.

    [251] [252] Alexis Petridis of The Guardian wrote that Bowie was confirmed by 1980 to be "the most important and influential artist since the Beatles". [253] Neil McCormick of The Daily Telegraph stated that Bowie had "one of the supreme careers in popular music, art and culture of the 20th century" and "he was too inventive, too mercurial, too strange for all but his most devoted fans to keep up with". [254] The BBC's Mark Easton argued that Bowie provided fuel for "the creative powerhouse that Britain has become" by challenging future generations "to aim high, to be ambitious and provocative, to take risks".

    Easton concluded that Bowie had "changed the way the world sees Britain. And the way Britain sees itself". [255] Annie Zaleski of Alternative Press wrote, "Every band or solo artist who's decided to rip up their playbook and start again owes a debt to Bowie".

    [256] In 2016, he was dubbed "The Greatest Rock Star Ever" by Rolling Stone magazine

    . [257]
  • ^ Furman, Phyllis (26 October 1998). "Investment Banker Hopes to Issue More Rock 'n' Roll Bonds". Archived from the original on 23 February 2016.

    According to The Times, Bowie ruled out ever giving an interview again. [191] An exhibition of Bowie artefacts, called David Bowie Is, was organised by the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, and shown there in 2013. [192] The London exhibit was visited by 311,956 people, making it one of the most successful exhibitions ever staged at the museum.

    [193] Later that year the exhibition began a world tour which started in Toronto and included stops in Chicago, Paris, Melbourne, Groningen and Brooklyn, New York where the exhibit ended on 15 July at the Brooklyn Museum. [194] Bowie was featured in a cameo vocal in the Arcade Fire song "Reflektor". [195] A poll carried out by BBC History Magazine, in October 2013, named Bowie as the best-dressed Briton in history.


  • ^ "Reviews for Blackstar by David Bowie".

  • ^ Fyfe, Andy (January 2007). Mojo Classic (60 Years of Bowie)

  • ^ "Lifetime Achievement Award: Past Recipients". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010.
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  • ^ "Musical David Bowie statue unveiled in Aylesbury".

    A music video for "Where Are We Now?" was released onto Vimeo the same day, directed by New York artist Tony Oursler. [184] The single topped the UK iTunes Chart within hours of its release, [185] and debuted in the UK Singles Chart at No. 6, [186] his first single to enter the Top 10 for two decades (since " Jump They Say" in 1993).

    A second video, "The Stars (Are Out Tonight)", was released 25 February. Directed by Floria Sigismondi, it stars Bowie and Tilda Swinton as a married couple

    . [187] On 1 March, the album was made available to stream for free through iTunes.

    [188] The Next Day debuted at No. 1 on the UK Albums Chart, was his first album to achieve that position since Black Tie White Noise (1993), and was the fastest-selling album of 2013 at the time. [189] The music video for the song " The Next Day" created some controversy, initially being removed from YouTube for terms-of-service violation, then restored with a warning recommending viewing only by those 18 or over.

    [190] Bowie's second album followed in November; originally issued in the UK as David Bowie, it caused some confusion with its predecessor of the same name, and the early US release was instead titled Man of Words/Man of Music; it was reissued internationally in 1972 by RCA Records as Space Oddity. Featuring philosophical post- hippie lyrics on peace, love, and morality, its acoustic folk rock occasionally fortified by harder rock, the album was not a commercial success at the time of its release. [39]

  • ^ "David Bowie secures first Top 10 single in two decades". Berlin Memorial Plaque, Hauptstraße 155, in Schöneberg, Germany
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  • ^ "Last Pictures of David Bowie: Icon Looked in Good Spirits at Final Public Appearance a Month Ago".
  • ^ "Who knew? Pop superstar David Bowie was once a secret resident of Sydney's Elizabeth Bay".

  • ^ "Celebrating David Bowie's 70th birthday in Brixton, gig review: Touching tributes from those who knew him".
  • ^ a b c Stuart, Keith (11 January 2016). "BowieNet: how David Bowie's ISP foresaw the future of the internet".
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    Rock 'n' Roll's Strangest Moments: Extraordinary Tales from Over Fifty Years.

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    494–95, 623

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  • ^ "A Short History of the Bowie Bond".

  • ^ a b c Kennedy, Maev (14 July 2016). "David Bowie's private art collection to be unveiled for the first time".
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    "David Bowie's 'Blackstar' Album Debuts at No.

  • ^ "Read Annie Lennox And Gary Oldman's David Bowie Tribute Speeches at the Brit Awards 2016".
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  • ^ a b c Sandford (1997): pp. 19–20
  • ^ "It's no 'Space Oddity': Mile-Wide David Bowie Asteroid to Forever Float in Outer Space".
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    Guinness World Records: British Hit Singles. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list ( link)

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  • ^ Teeman, Tim (12 January 2013). "Tony Visconti spills the beans on cocaine, AA and sushi with David Bowie". Archived from the original on 19 January 2013.

  • ^ "Bono Remembers David Bowie: 'He Is My Idea of a Rock Star '".
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  • ^ "David Bowie turns down knighthood".
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  • ^ "The Pullman Group – David Bowie Bonds" Archived 31 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine , fetched 15 March 2009.
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  • ^ Saner, Emine (17 March 2006).

    "Angie Bowie: 'Why I gave up my son Zowie '".

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    "David Bowie's Art Collection Is As Beautiful As You Imagined".

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  • ^ Greene, Andy (2 February 2016). "Michael Moore: Bob Dylan Loved Fahrenheit 9/11".
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  • ^ "Brit Awards 2014: David Bowie wins Best Male and wades into Scottish independence debate via Kate 'Ziggy' Moss".
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  • ^ a b Buckley (2005): pp. 135–36
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  • ^ Buckley (2005): pp. 504–05 Dissatisfied with his stage name as Davy (and Davie) Jones, which in the mid-1960s invited confusion with Davy Jones of The Monkees, Bowie renamed himself after the 19th-century American pioneer James Bowie and the knife he had popularised. [23] His April 1967 solo single, " The Laughing Gnome", using speeded-up thus high-pitched vocals, failed to chart.

    Released six weeks later, his album debut, David Bowie, an amalgam of pop, psychedelia, and music hall, met the same fate. It was his last release for two years. [24] 1968–1971: Space Oddity to Hunky Dory

  • ^ "Archived copy"

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  • ^ Berman, Stuart (14 April 2010). "Iggy and the Stooges Raw Power [Legacy Edition] / Raw Power [Deluxe Edition] Album Review".
  • ^ Buckley, Peter, ed.

    "Behind David Bowie's Pioneering Internet Service BowieNet, Where the 'Sailor' Was Known to Roam".

  • ^ Buckley (2005): pp. 165–66
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  • ^ Gillman (1987) p.

    17 "[Peggy] was born in the hospital at Shorncliffe Camp [near Folkestone, Kent] on October 2nd, 1913. "

  • ^ Buckley (2000): pp. 623–24
  • ^ Barton, Laura.

    "Arcade Fire: Voodoo rhythms, dance music and David Bowie". Bowie met dancer Lindsay Kemp in 1967 and enrolled in his dance class at the London Dance Centre. [25] He commented in 1972 that meeting Kemp was when his interest in image "really blossomed".

    [25] "He lived on his emotions, he was a wonderful influence. His day-to-day life was the most theatrical thing I had ever seen, ever. It was everything I thought Bohemia probably was. " [26] Studying the dramatic arts under Kemp, from avant-garde theatre and mime to commedia dell'arte, Bowie became immersed in the creation of personae to present to the world. Satirising life in a British prison, meanwhile, the Bowie composition "Over the Wall We Go" became a 1967 single for Oscar; another Bowie song, "Silly Boy Blue", was released by Billy Fury the following year.

    [27] In January 1968, Kemp choreographed a dance scene for a BBC play, The Pistol Shot, in the Theatre 625 series, and used Bowie with a dancer, Hermione Farthingale; [28] [29] the pair began dating, and moved into a London flat together. Playing acoustic guitar, Farthingale formed a group with Bowie and guitarist John Hutchinson; between September 1968 and early 1969 the trio gave a small number of concerts combining folk, Merseybeat, poetry, and mime. [30] Bowie and Farthingale broke up in early 1969 when she went to Norway to take part in a film, Song of Norway; [31] this affected him, and several songs, such as " Letter to Hermione" and " Life on Mars?" reference her, [32] [33] and for the video accompanying " Where Are We Now?", he wore a T-shirt with the words "m/s Song of Norway".

    [34] They were last together in January 1969 for the filming of Love You till Tuesday, a 30-minute film that was not released until 1984: intended as a promotional vehicle, it featured performances from Bowie's repertoire, including " Space Oddity", which had not been released when the film was made. [35] Bowie married his first wife, Mary Angela Barnett on 19 March 1970 at Bromley Register Office in Bromley, London.

    Angela described their union as a marriage of convenience. "We got married so that I could work [to get a permit]. I didn't think it would last and David said, before we got married, 'I'm not really in love with you' and I thought that's probably a good thing," she said.

    Bowie said about Angela that "living with her is like living with a blow torch. " [288] Their son Duncan, born on 30 May 1971, was at first known as Zowie. [289] Bowie and Angela divorced on 8 February 1980 in Switzerland.

    [290] Bowie received custody of their son. After the gag order that was part of their divorce agreement ended, Angela wrote, Backstage Passes: Life on the Wild Side with David Bowie, a memoir of their turbulent marriage.

    "Starting Point – David Bowie".

  • ^ "Grammy Winner David Bowie Lends His Voice to SpongeBob". Bowie's songs and stagecraft brought a new dimension to popular music in the early 1970s, strongly influencing both its immediate forms and its subsequent development.

    Bowie was a pioneer of glam rock, according to music historians Schinder and Schwartz, who credited Marc Bolan and Bowie with creating the genre. [238] At the same time, he inspired the innovators of the punk rock music movement. [239] When punk musicians were "noisily reclaiming the three-minute pop song in a show of public defiance", biographer David Buckley wrote that "Bowie almost completely abandoned traditional rock instrumentation.

    " [240] [241] Bowie's record company promoted his unique status in popular music with the slogan, "There's old wave, there's new wave, and there's David Bowie". [242]

  • ^ "ChChChChanges".

    Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Bowie declared himself gay in an interview with Michael Watts for a 1972 issue of Melody Maker, [297] coinciding with his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust.

    [58] According to Buckley, "If Ziggy confused both his creator and his audience, a big part of that confusion centred on the topic of sexuality. " [298] In a September 1976 interview with Playboy, Bowie said, "It's true—I am a bisexual. But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well.

    I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me. " [299] His first wife, Angie, supports his claim of bisexuality and alleges that Bowie had a relationship with Mick Jagger. [300] [301]

  • ^ Sandford (1997): p.


  • ^ Watts, Michael (22 January 2006). "On the cusp of fame, Bowie tells Melody Maker he's gay – and changes pop for ever".
  • ^ Sandford (1997): pp. 93–95
  • ^ Kirk, Ashley (11 January 2016).

    "David Bowie: The legendary singer in numbers".

    In 1976, speaking as The Thin White Duke, Bowie's persona at the time, and "at least partially tongue-in-cheek", he made statements that expressed support for fascism and perceived admiration for Adolf Hitler in interviews with Playboy, NME, and a Swedish publication. Bowie was quoted as saying: "Britain is ready for a fascist leader. I think Britain could benefit from a fascist leader. After all, fascism is really nationalism. I believe very strongly in fascism, people have always responded with greater efficiency under a regimental leadership.

    " He was also quoted as saying: "Adolf Hitler was one of the first rock stars" and "You've got to have an extreme right front come up and sweep everything off its feet and tidy everything up. " [318] [319] Bowie later retracted these comments in an interview with Melody Maker in October 1977, blaming them on mental instability caused by his drug problems at the time, saying: "I was out of my mind, totally, completely crazed. " [320]

  • ^ Sandford (1997): p.


  • ^ Perone (2007) p. 12 It was announced on 31 January 2019 that musician and actor Johnny Flynn would be playing Bowie in an upcoming biopic titled Stardust which will be set around Bowie's first trip to the United States in 1971. Christopher Bell is writing the script and Gabriel Range will direct.

    Actress Jena Malone has signed on to play Bowie's wife Angie while actor Marc Maron will play Bowie's record company publicist. [264]

  • ^ Carr & Murray (1981): pp. 68–74
  • ^ a b DeCurtis, Anthony (5 May 2005).

    In Other Words: Artists Talk About Life And Work.

  • ^ Sandford (1997): p. 189 Bowie met Angela Barnett in April 1969.

    Her impact on him was immediate, and her involvement in his career far-reaching, leaving manager Ken Pitt with limited influence which he found frustrating. [40] Having established himself as a solo artist with "Space Oddity", Bowie began to sense a lacking: "a full-time band for gigs and recording—people he could relate to personally". [41] The shortcoming was underlined by his artistic rivalry with Marc Bolan, who was at the time acting as his session guitarist.

    [41] The band Bowie assembled comprised John Cambridge, a drummer Bowie met at the Arts Lab, Tony Visconti on bass and Mick Ronson on electric guitar. Known as Hype, the bandmates created characters for themselves and wore elaborate costumes that prefigured the glam style of the Spiders from Mars. After a disastrous opening gig at the London Roundhouse, they reverted to a configuration presenting Bowie as a solo artist.

    [41] [42] Their initial studio work was marred by a heated disagreement between Bowie and Cambridge over the latter's drumming style. Matters came to a head when an enraged Bowie accused the drummer of the disturbance, exclaiming "You're fucking up my album. " Cambridge left and was replaced by Mick Woodmansey


    [43] Not long after, the singer fired his manager and replaced him with Tony Defries. This resulted in years of litigation that concluded with Bowie having to pay Pitt compensation. [43] Conn quickly began to promote Bowie.

    The singer's debut single, " Liza Jane", credited to Davie Jones with the King Bees, was not commercially successful. Dissatisfied with the King Bees and their repertoire of Howlin' Wolf and Willie Dixon covers, Bowie quit the band less than a month later to join the Manish Boys, another blues outfit, who incorporated folk and soul—"I used to dream of being their Mick Jagger", Bowie was to recall. [21] Their cover of Bobby Bland's " I Pity the Fool" was no more successful than "Liza Jane", and Bowie soon moved on again to join the Lower Third, a blues trio strongly influenced by The Who.

    " You've Got a Habit of Leaving" fared no better, signalling the end of Conn's contract. Declaring that he would exit the pop music world "to study mime at Sadler's Wells", Bowie nevertheless remained with the Lower Third. His new manager, Ralph Horton, later instrumental in his transition to solo artist, soon witnessed Bowie's move to yet another group, the Buzz, yielding the singer's fifth unsuccessful single release, " Do Anything You Say".

    While with the Buzz, Bowie also joined the Riot Squad; their recordings, which included one of Bowie's original songs and material by The Velvet Underground, went unreleased. Ken Pitt, introduced by Horton, took over as Bowie's manager. [22]

  • ^ Gillman (1987) p.

    15 "[Her father] Jimmy Burns's parents were poor Irish immigrants who had settled in Manchester" p. 16 "[Jimmy] had known [her mother] in Manchester. Her name was Margaret Heaton"

  • ^ "Mick Jagger's affair with David Bowie revealed in new book: They 'were really sexually obsessed with each other '". 491
  • ^ a b Kaye, Jeff (22 April 1992)
    . "(Safe) Sex, (No) Drugs and Rock 'n' Roll : A Star-Filled Send-Off to Freddie Mercury".
  • ^ "David Bowie Birthday Celebration Live Album an Unauthorized Bootleg".


  • ^ Buckley (2005): p. 485
  • ^ Buckley (2000): p. 156
  • ^ Phillips, Amy (1 March 2013).

    "Listen to the New David Bowie Album".

  • ^ Furness, Hannah (11 January 2016). "David Bowie's last release, Lazarus, was 'parting gift' for fans in carefully planned finale".

    In a 1983 interview with Rolling Stone, Bowie said his public declaration of bisexuality was "the biggest mistake I ever made" and "I was always a closet heterosexual. " [302] On other occasions, he said his interest in homosexual and bisexual culture had been more a product of the times and the situation in which he found himself than of his own feelings. [303] [a]

  • ^ "David Bowie's Death a 'Work of Art,' Says Tony Visconti".

  • ^ Clement, Olivia (11 January 2016). " 'Look Up Here, I'm in Heaven' – Poignant Lyrics to Bowie's 'Lazarus' Signal His Farewell".
  • ^ "David Bowie fans create makeshift London shrines".
  • ^ "100 great British heroes".
  • ^ "Grammy Award Winners".

    National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences.

  • ^ Thompson, Dave (2006).

    Hallo Spaceboy: The Rebirth of David Bowie. 44 "John Jones was born in the grimy Yorkshire town of Doncaster in 1912.

    " In the 1980s and 1990s, Bowie's public statements shifted sharply towards anti-racism and anti-fascism. In an interview with MTV in 1983, Bowie criticised the channel for not providing enough coverage of black musicians, [321] [322] and the music videos for "China Girl" and "Let's Dance" were described by Bowie as a "very simple, very direct" statement against racism. [323] The album Tin Machine took a more direct stance against fascism and Neo-Nazism, and was criticised for being too preachy.


  • ^ Perone (2007): p. 4
  • ^ a b Mark Brown (11 January 2016). "David Bowie exhibition opens as fans can't wait to say 'I love you' till Tuesday".
  • ^ Thompson (2006): p.


  • ^ Michaels, Sean. "David Bowie voted the best-dressed person in British history".
  • ^ "Oh, it's such a perfect song".

    Buckley wrote that Bowie "mined sexual intrigue for its ability to shock", [306] and was probably "never gay, nor even consistently actively bisexual", instead experimenting "out of a sense of curiosity and a genuine allegiance with the 'transgressional'. " [307] Biographer Christopher Sandford said, according to Mary Finnigan—with whom Bowie had an affair in 1969—the singer and his first wife Angie "created their bisexual fantasy". [308] Sandford wrote that Bowie "made a positive fetish of repeating the quip that he and his wife had met while 'fucking the same bloke' . Gay sex was always an anecdotal and laughing matter.

    That Bowie's actual tastes swung the other way is clear from even a partial tally of his affairs with women. " [308] The BBC's Mark Easton wrote in 2016 that Britain was "far more tolerant of difference" and that gay rights, such as same-sex marriage, and gender equality would not have "enjoyed the broad support they do today without Bowie's androgynous challenge all those years ago". [255] Spirituality and religion

  • ^ a b Buckley (2005): p.


  • ^ Sandle, Paul; Faulconbridge, Guy (11 January 2016). "David Bowie dies after 18-month battle with cancer". 466
  • ^ "David Bowie is the Starman of this week's Official Chart as the nation pays tribute to a music icon".
  • ^ Buckley (2005): pp.


  • ^ Pegg, Nicholas (2 December 2011)
  • ^ Sandford (1997): p. 43
  • ^ Youngs, Ian (13 August 2009).

    "Stadium rock, from Beatles to Bono".

  • ^ Mitchell, Gail (November 2009).

    On 8 January 2013, his 66th birthday, his website announced a new album, to be titled The Next Day and scheduled for release 8 March for Australia, 12 March for the United States, and 11 March for the rest of the world. [181] Bowie's first studio album in a decade, The Next Day contains 14 songs plus 3 bonus tracks. [182] [183] His website acknowledged the length of his hiatus.

    [184] Record producer Tony Visconti said 29 tracks were recorded for the album, some of which could appear on Bowie's next record, which he might start work on later in 2013. The announcement was accompanied by the immediate release of a single, " Where Are We Now?", written and recorded by Bowie in New York and produced by longtime collaborator Visconti. [184]

  • ^ "David Bowie new album: Singer promises new music 'soon '".

    After the break-up with Farthingale, Bowie moved in with Mary Finnigan as her lodger. [36] During this period he appeared in a Lyons Maid ice cream commercial, and was rejected for another by Kit Kat. [35] In February and March 1969, he undertook a short tour with Marc Bolan's duo Tyrannosaurus Rex, as third on the bill, performing a mime act.

    [37] On 11 July 1969, "Space Oddity" was released five days ahead of the Apollo 11 launch, and reached the top five in the UK. [35] Continuing the divergence from rock and roll and blues begun by his work with Farthingale, Bowie joined forces with Finnigan, Christina Ostrom and Barrie Jackson to run a folk club on Sunday nights at the Three Tuns pub in Beckenham High Street. [36] The club was influenced by the Arts Lab movement, developing into the Beckenham Arts Lab and became extremely popular.

    The Arts Lab hosted a free festival in a local park, the subject of his song " Memory of a Free Festival". [38] A trade ad photo of Bowie in 1967

  • ^ "David Bowie's final album Blackstar rockets to top of charts".
  • ^ a b "Bowie mourns mother's death".
  • ^ Sandford (1997): p. 149 Bowie was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award on 8 February 2006.

    [168] In April, he announced, "I'm taking a year off—no touring, no albums. " [169] He made a surprise guest appearance at David Gilmour's 29 May concert at the Royal Albert Hall in London. The event was recorded, and a selection of songs on which he had contributed joint vocals were subsequently released.

    [170] He performed again in November, alongside Alicia Keys, at the Black Ball, a benefit event for Keep a Child Alive at the Hammerstein Ballroom in New York. [171] [172] The performance marked the last time Bowie performed his music on stage. [173]

  • ^ Hopkins, Jerry (1985).


  • ^ MacKinnon, Angus (13 September 1980). "The future isn't what it used to be David Bowie talks about loneliness, insecurity, and myth, And the dangers of messing with Major Tom". Archived from the original on 6 January 2017.

  • ^ Buckley (2000): pp. 89–90
  • ^ Basu, Tanya (12 January 2016). "The Story Behind David Bowie's Unusual Eyes".

  • ^ Harriet Gibsone (15 January 2016)
    . "David Bowie dominates UK album charts as latest album hits No 1". Elsewhere, 19 Bowie albums and 13 singles have entered the top 100
  • ^ Carr & Murray (1981): p. 11 At the 2014 Brit Awards on 19 February, Bowie became the oldest recipient of a Brit Award in the ceremony's history when he won the award for Best British Male, which was collected on his behalf by Kate Moss.

    His speech read: "I'm completely delighted to have a Brit for being the best male – but I am, aren't I Kate? Yes. I think it's a great way to end the day. Thank you very, very much and Scotland stay with us.

    " [197] Bowie's reference to the forthcoming September 2014 Scottish independence referendum garnered a significant reaction throughout the UK on social media. [198] [199] On 18 July, Bowie indicated that future music would be forthcoming, though he was vague about details. [200]

  • ^ Perone (2007): p.

    183 During a relatively quiet 2005, he recorded the vocals for the song "(She Can) Do That", co-written with Brian Transeau, for the film Stealth. [163] He returned to the stage on 8 September 2005, appearing with Arcade Fire for the US nationally televised event Fashion Rocks, and performed with the Canadian band for the second time a week later during the CMJ Music Marathon. [164] He contributed backing vocals on TV on the Radio's song "Province" for their album Return to Cookie Mountain, [165] made a commercial with Snoop Dogg for XM Satellite Radio [166] and joined with Lou Reed on Danish alt-rockers Kashmir's 2005 album No Balance Palace.


  • ^ Sandford (1997): pp. 278–79
  • ^ Stone, Andrew (2008).
  • ^ Forget, Thomas (2002). David Bowie (Rock & Roll Hall of Famers).
  • ^ "David Bowie, Aerosmith, Flaming Lips Pen Songs for 'SpongeBob Musical '". The FMD – FashionModelDirectory.


  • ^ "David Bowie is – la Philharmonie de Paris: fine exhibition, superlative venue".

    Archived from the original on 23 May 2015.

  • ^ Carr & Murray (1981): pp.


  • ^ Paytress, Mark (2003). Bolan: The Rise and Fall of a 20th Century Superstar.

  • ^ Buckley (2005): pp. 180–83
  • ^ Buckley (2005): p. 394
  • ^ Petridis, Alexis (11 January 2016).

    "David Bowie: the man who thrilled the world".

  • ^ Young, Alex (8 January 2017). "Final David Bowie songs collected on new EP released for his 70th birthday". On 7 January 2017 the BBC broadcast the 90-minute documentary David Bowie: The Last Five Years, taking a detailed look at Bowie's last albums, The Next Day and Blackstar, and his play Lazarus.

    [260] On 8 January 2017, which would have been Bowie's 70th birthday, a charity concert in his birthplace of Brixton was hosted by the actor Gary Oldman, a close friend

    . [261] A David Bowie walking tour through Brixton was also launched, and other events marking his birthday weekend included concerts in New York, Los Angeles, Sydney, and Tokyo. [262]
  • ^ Johnson, Bridget (13 January 2016).

    "Why David Bowie Knelt and Said the Lord's Prayer at Wembley Stadium".

  • ^ Loder, Kurt (12 May 1983).
  • ^ a b Sandford (1997): p. 158
  • ^ Hendrikse, Wim (2013).

    David Bowie – The Man Who Changed the World.

  • ^ "SpaceX Successfully Launches the Falcon Heavy—And Elon Musk's Roadster".

  • ^ "Bowie 'died from liver cancer '".

  • ^ "David Bowie: Friends and stars pay tribute". 45
  • ^ Platiau, Charles (12 January 2016).

    "Bowie's greatest gift? Even his 'failures' will echo through the ages".

  • ^ " The Man Who Fell to Earth details".
  • ^ Campbell, Michael (2011). Popular Music in America:The Beat Goes On.
  • ^ Sandford (1997): pp. 298–99
  • ^ a b Ruether, Tobias (Winter 2006–2007).
  • ^ Sandford (1997): pp.


  • ^ Kreps, Daniel (22 September 2015). "David Bowie Records Theme Song for 'Last Panthers' Series". 3
  • ^ "Bowie Rocks Wall Street". 281–83
  • ^ Buckley (2000): pp. 533–34 On 24 April 1992, Bowie married Somali-American model Iman in a private ceremony in Lausanne.

    The wedding was later solemnised on 6 June in Florence. [291] They had one daughter, Alexandria "Lexi" Zahra Jones, born in August 2000. [292] [293] The couple resided primarily in New York City and London, as well as owning an apartment in Sydney's Elizabeth Bay [294] [295] and Britannia Bay House on the island of Mustique, [296] now renamed Mandalay Estate.

  • ^ Marchese, David (May 2008). "The Inquisition: Scarlett Johansson".
  • ^ Curtis, Malcolm (11 January 2016).

    "Bowie's discreet time in Switzerland recalled". Over the years, Bowie made numerous references to religions and to his evolving spirituality. Beginning in 1967, he showed an interest in Buddhism; after a few months' study at Tibet House in London, he was told by a Lama, "You don't want to be Buddhist. " [309] By 1975, Bowie admitted, "I felt totally, absolutely alone. And I probably was alone because I pretty much had abandoned God.

    " [304]

  • ^ "The Pennsylvania Gazette: David Pullman", fetched 16 March 2009, On 1 February 2019, Bowie's son Duncan Jones spoke out against the film saying that he knew nothing about the movie and was informed about it by a fan on Twitter. Jones also said that the film would not have permission to use any of Bowie's music. "Pretty certain nobody has been granted music rights for ANY biopic.

    I'm not saying this movie is not happening. I'm saying that as it stands, this movie won't have any of dads music in it, & I can't imagine that changing.

    " [265] Musicianship

  • ^ Perone (2007): pp. 22, 36–37
  • ^ Payne, Chris. "David Bowie's Final Album 'Blackstar' & 'Lazarus' Video Were Goodbye Notes".

  • ^ Pegg, Nicholas (2006). 17–44, 152–60 Sexuality
  • ^ Seale, Jack (8 January 2013). "David Bowie rocks music world with Where Are We Now?".

    During the tour, Bowie's observation of two seminal American proto-punk artists led him to develop a concept that eventually found form in the Ziggy Stardust character: a melding of the persona of Iggy Pop with the music of Lou Reed, producing "the ultimate pop idol". [45] A girlfriend recalled his "scrawling notes on a cocktail napkin about a crazy rock star named Iggy or Ziggy", and on his return to England he declared his intention to create a character "who looks like he's landed from Mars". [45] The "Stardust" surname was a tribute to the " Legendary Stardust Cowboy", whose record he was given during the tour.

    Bowie would later cover "I Took a Trip on a Gemini Space Ship" on 2002's Heathen

    . [47]
  • ^ "David Bowie: Shape-shifting musician and movie star".

    Archived from the original on 25 September 2013.

  • ^ a b c Sandford (1997): pp.


  • ^ a b "2016 deaths: The great, the good and the lesser known".

  • ^ Dumas, Daisy (16 January 2016). "Bowie Down Under: star hooked on Sydney". 260–65
  • ^ Perpetua, Matthew (22 March 2011).

    "Unreleased David Bowie LP 'Toy' Leaks Online". 304

  • ^ Buckley (2005): p. 163
  • ^ "David Bowie to release "Space Oddity" multi-tracks to celebrate moon landing"

  • ^ Sandford (1997): p. 278 "Questioning [his] spiritual life [was] always . Germane" to Bowie's songwriting. [312] The song " Station to Station" is "very much concerned with the Stations of the Cross"; the song also specifically references Kabbalah.

    Bowie called the album "extremely dark.

    The nearest album to a magick treatise that I've written". [314] [c] Earthling showed "the abiding need in me to vacillate between atheism or a kind of gnosticism. What I need is to find a balance, spiritually, with the way I live and my demise. " [316] Released shortly before his death, " Lazarus"—from his final album, Blackstar—began with the words, "Look up here, I'm in Heaven" while the rest of the album deals with other matters of mysticism and mortality.

    [317] Politics

  • ^ Thompson (2006): pp. 203, 212
  • ^ "David Bowie Calls Himself 'A Closet Heterosexual '"
  • ^ "David Bowie to release retrospective album 'Nothing has Changed' with single 'Sue (Or in a Season of Crime)' in November".

  • ^ Gilmore, Mikal (18 January 2012). "Cover Story Excerpt: David Bowie". 140 In 2016, filmmaker and activist Michael Moore said he had wanted to use " Panic in Detroit" for his 1998 documentary The Big One; denied at first, he was given the rights after calling Bowie personally.

    "I've read stuff since his death saying that he wasn't that political and he stayed away from politics. But that wasn't the conversation that I had with him. " [324] Death

  • ^ Buckley (2005): p.


  • ^ Thomson (1993): p. Xiii
  • ^ "Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty Is Most Popular Show in V&A's History".
  • ^ Buckley, Christopher (31 August 1992). "David Bowie's House on the Island of Mustique". 141
  • ^ Hiatt, Brian (13 January 2016).

    "David Bowie Planned Post-'Blackstar' Album, 'Thought He Had Few More Months '".

  • ^ Barron, James (29 January 2016). "David Bowie's Will Splits Estate Said to Be Worth $100 Million".
  • ^ Schinder & Schwartz (2007): p. 483 After Bowie married Iman in a private ceremony in 1992, he said they knew that their "real marriage, sanctified by God, had to happen in a church in Florence".

    [310] Earlier that year, he knelt on stage at The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert and recited the Lord's Prayer before a television audience. [129] [b] In 1993, Bowie said he had an "undying" belief in the "unquestionable" existence of God. [304] In a separate 1993 interview, while describing the genesis of the music for his album Black Tie White Noise, he said " … it was important for me to find something [musically] that also had no sort of representation of institutionalized and organized religion, of which I'm not a believer, I must make that clear.

    " [311] Interviewed in 2005, Bowie said whether God exists "is not a question that can be answered. I'm not quite an atheist and it worries me. There's that little bit that holds on: 'Well, I'm almost an atheist. '" [312] In his will, Bowie stipulated that he be cremated and his ashes scattered in Bali "in accordance with the Buddhist rituals".


  • ^ Schinder & Schwartz (2007): p. 500
  • ^ Kimmelman, Michael (14 June 1998). "David Bowie on His Favorite Artists".
  • ^ Sandford (1997): pp.


  • ^ McCormick, Neil (11 January 2016). "A one-man melting pot of ideas: why we will never solve the mystery of David Bowie's music". Broadcaster John Peel contrasted Bowie with his progressive rock contemporaries, arguing that Bowie was "an interesting kind of fringe figure.

    Peel said he "liked the idea of him reinventing himself.

    The one distinguishing feature about early-70s progressive rock was that it didn't progress. Before Bowie came along, people didn't want too much change". Buckley called the era "bloated, self-important, leather-clad, self-satisfied"; then Bowie "subverted the whole notion of what it was to be a rock star".

  • ^ Christian, Margena A (9 October 2006). "Why It Took So Long For MTV To Play Black Videos".
  • ^ "David Bowie's 'Let's Dance' to get limited vinyl reissue". Archived from the original on 14 January 2016.
  • ^ Lichfield, John (8 May 2009). "The Big Question: How does the French honours system work, and why has Kylie been decorated?".

  • ^ Buckley (2005): pp. 95–99
  • ^ "Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame: EMP welcomes five major players". Archived from the original on 18 August 2013.

    16 Hunky Dory (1971) found Visconti, Bowie's producer and bassist, supplanted in both roles by Ken Scott and Trevor Bolder respectively. The album saw the partial return of the fey pop singer of "Space Oddity", with light fare such as " Kooks", a song written for his son, Duncan Zowie Haywood Jones, born on 30 May. [48] (His parents chose "his kooky name"—he was known as Zowie for the next 12 years—after the Greek word zoe, life.

    ) [49] Elsewhere, the album explored more serious subjects, and found Bowie paying unusually direct homage to his influences with " Song for Bob Dylan", " Andy Warhol", and " Queen Bitch", a Velvet Underground pastiche. It was not a significant commercial success at the time. [50] 1972–1974: Ziggy Stardust

  • ^ "David Bowie on Scottish independence: Reactions on Twitter".
  • ^ a b Sandford (1997): pp. 21–22
  • ^ Manzoor, Sarfraz (20 April 2008).

    "1978, the year rock found the power to unite".

  • ^ Young, Alex (24 October 2015). "David Bowie to release "oddest" album yet, Blackstar, in January".
  • ^ Sandford (1997): p. 108 On 6 February 2018 the maiden flight of the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket carried Elon Musk's personal Tesla Roadster and a mannequin affectionately named Starman into space.

    " Space Oddity" and " Life on Mars?" were looping on the car's sound system during the launch. [263] Stardust biopic

  • ^ Buckley (2005): p. 281 In late March 2011, Toy, Bowie's previously unreleased album from 2001, was leaked onto the internet, containing material used for Heathen and most of its single B-sides, as well as unheard new versions of his early back catalogue.

    [179] [180] 2013–2016: Final years

  • ^ Jonze, Tim (11 January 2016). "Was David Bowie saying goodbye on Blackstar?". Guitar Gods: The 25 Players Who Made Rock History.

    Bowie with his son Duncan Jones at the premiere of Jones's directorial debut Moon, 2009

  • ^ a b Kreps, Daniel (8 January 2017). "Watch David Bowie's Mysterious 'No Plan' Video". Bowie was chosen to curate the 2007 High Line Festival, selecting musicians and artists for the Manhattan event, including electronic pop duo AIR, surrealist photographer Claude Cahun, and English comedian Ricky Gervais. [174] [175] Bowie performed on Scarlett Johansson's 2008 album of Tom Waits covers, Anywhere I Lay My Head.

    [176] On the 40th anniversary of the July 1969 moon landing—and Bowie's accompanying commercial breakthrough with "Space Oddity"—EMI released the individual tracks from the original eight-track studio recording of the song, in a 2009 contest inviting members of the public to create a remix. [177] A Reality Tour, a double album of live material from the 2003 concert tour, was released in January 2010. [178]

  • ^ Gill, Andy (2 January 2016).

    "Rebel, rebel: We profile singing legend David Bowie". 33

  • ^ Perone (2007): p. 142
  • ^ Sheffield, Rob (11 January 2016).

    "Thanks, Starman: Why David Bowie Was the Greatest Rock Star Ever".

  • ^ Sandford (1997): pp. 191–92
  • ^ "New Website, Album, Single And Video for the Birthday Boy". Archived from the original on 11 January 2013.
  • ^ "David Bowie Returns From Decade-Long Hiatus With New Album, Single". New information was released in September 2014 regarding his next compilation album, Nothing Has Changed, which was released in November.

    The album featured rare tracks and old material from his catalogue in addition to a new song titled " Sue (Or in a Season of Crime)". [201] In May 2015, "Let's Dance" was announced to be reissued as a yellow vinyl single on 16 July 2015 in conjunction with the David Bowie Is exhibition at the Australian Centre for the Moving Image in Melbourne, Australia. [202] The studio sessions continued and resulted in Bowie's third album, The Man Who Sold the World (1970), which contained references to schizophrenia, paranoia, and delusion


    [44] Characterised by the heavy rock sound of his new backing band, it was a marked departure from the acoustic guitar and folk rock style established by Space Oddity. To promote it in the US, Mercury Records financed a coast-to-coast publicity tour across America in which Bowie, between January and February 1971, was interviewed by radio stations and the media. Exploiting his androgynous appearance, the original cover of the UK version unveiled two months later depicted the singer wearing a dress: taking the garment with him, he wore it during interviews—to the approval of critics, including Rolling Stone 's John Mendelsohn who described him as "ravishing, almost disconcertingly reminiscent of Lauren Bacall" – and in the street, to mixed reaction including laughter and, in the case of one male pedestrian, producing a gun and telling Bowie to "kiss my ass".

    [45] [46]

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