.

  • ^ a b Gould 2008, pp.
  • ^ Gilliland 1969, show 27, track 5.

  • ^ Scaduto, Anthony (16 March 1972). "Bob Dylan: An Intimate Biography, Part Two".
  • ^ Johnson, Paul (28 February 1964).
  • ^ a b Pawlowski 1990, pp.

  • ^ a b Schaffner 1978, p.
  • ^ a b c d e Gould 2008, pp.

  • ^ "The Beatles Meet The Beatles! Chart History".
  • ^ "Remembering Walter Cronkite".

  • ^ Radio interview Archived 7 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Radio Tay AM. Accessed 26 May 2007
  • ^ a b MacDonald 1998, p.

  • ^ Ehrenreich, Barbara; Hess, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Gloria (14 December 1986). "Screams Heard 'Round The World".
  • ^ a b Gould 2008, pp.
  • ^ Leopold, Todd (31 January 2014). "Beatles + Sullivan = Revolution: Why Beatlemania Could Never Happen Today". Archived from the original on 23 February 2018.

  • ^ The Beatles 2000, p.
  • ^ Kozinn, Allan (6 February 2004).

    "Critic's Notebook; They Came, They Sang, They Conquered".

  • ^ a b Murashev, Dmitry. "Beatles history – 1963 year". Archived from the original on 20 April 2009.
  • ^ "The Beatles banned segregated audiences, contract shows".

  • ^ a b c "How the Beatles Went Viral: Blunders, Technology & Luck Broke the Fab Four in America".
  • ^ a b CBS (16 January 2004). "Beatles' 'Helping Hand' Shuns Fame". Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. "Beatlemania – A Study in Adolescent Enthusiasm". British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.

  • ^ Leopold, Todd (10 February 2004). "When The Beatles hit America".
  • ^ Gilliland 1969, show 28.

  • ^ a b c d Gould 2008, pp.
  • ^ Pawlowski 1990, pp.
  • ^ Gilliland 1969, show 39.
  • ^ Unterberger, Richie.

  • ^ Rodriguez 2012, pp.
  • ^ a b Wickman, Forrest (24 October 2013).

    "When Did "Beatlemania" Actually Start?".

  • ^ Pawlowski 1990, pp.
  • ^ Jovanovic 2004, pp.
  • ^ Pawlowski 1990, pp.

  • ^ a b Pawlowski 1990, p.
  • ^ Lipman, Maureen (28 August 2014). "Forty pairs of abandoned knickers: Maureen Lipman on the Fab Four in Hull".
  • ^ Rodriguez 2012, pp.

  • ^ a b Gould 2008, pp.
  • ^ Pawlowski 1990, pp.

  • ^ Video interview, The Courier. Accessed 7 October 2013
  • ^ "The Beatles The Beatles' Second Album Chart History". The band returned from a five-day Swedish tour on 31 October 1963 [30] and were greeted at Heathrow Airport in heavy rain by thousands of screaming fans, 50 journalists and photographers, and a BBC TV camera crew.

    The wild scenes at the airport delayed the British prime minister, being chauffeured in the vicinity, as his car was obstructed by the crowds. The Miss World of the time was passing through the airport, as well, but she was completely ignored by journalists and the public. [31] [nb 2]

  • ^ a b c d Gould 2008, p.
  • ^ a b Pawlowski 1990, p.

  • ^ a b Lewis, Martin (18 July 2009). "Tweet The Beatles! How Walter Cronkite Sent The Beatles Viral.

  • ^ a b Lewisohn 2002, p.
  • ^ Gilliland 1969, show 29.
  • ^ "Beatles' remastered box set, video game out".
  • ^ Pawlowski 1990, pp.

    EMI owned Capitol Records, but Capitol had declined to issue any of the band's singles in the US for most of the year

    . [41] The American press regarded the phenomenon of Beatlemania in the UK with amusement. [42] Newspaper and magazine articles about the Beatles began to appear in the US towards the end of 1963, and they cited the English stereotype of eccentricity, reporting that the UK had finally developed an interest in rock and roll, which had come and gone a long time previously in the US.

    [42] Headlines included "The New Madness" [43] and "Beatle Bug Bites Britain", [42] and writers employed word-play linking "beetle" with the "infestation" afflicting the UK. [42] The Baltimore Sun reflected the dismissive view of most adults: "America had better take thought as to how it will deal with the invasion. Indeed a restrained 'Beatles go home' might be just the thing.

    " [44]

  • ^ The Beatles 2000, pp.
  • ^ "It's Beach Boys Over Beatles: Reader Poll". The Beatles' American television debut was on 18 November 1963 on The Huntley–Brinkley Report, with a four-minute report by Edwin Newman.

    [45] On 22 November, the CBS Morning News ran a five-minute feature on Beatlemania in the UK which heavily featured their UK hit "She Loves You". The evening's scheduled repeat was cancelled following the assassination of President Kennedy the same day. On 10 December, Walter Cronkite decided to run the piece on the CBS Evening News

    .

    [46] American chart success began after disc jockey Carroll James obtained a copy of the British single " I Want to Hold Your Hand" in mid-December and began playing it on AM radio station WWDC in Washington, DC. [47] Listeners repeatedly phoned in to request a replay of the song, while local record shops were flooded with requests for a record that they did not have in stock. [48] James sent the record to other disc jockeys around the country, sparking similar reaction.

    [44] On 26 December, Capitol released the record three weeks ahead of schedule, [48] and it sold a million copies and became a number-one hit in the US by mid-January. [49] Epstein arranged for a $40,000 American marketing campaign, [47] which Capitol agreed to due to Ed Sullivan's agreement to headline the Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show. [50]

  • ^ "The Beatles on Tour 1963 to 1966".

    Archived from the original on 6 May 2009.

  • ^ a b c d Gould 2008, p.
  • ^ "The Beatles A Hard Day's Night (Soundtrack) Chart History". On 3 January 1964, The Jack Paar Program ran Beatles concert footage licensed from the BBC "as a joke" to an audience of 30 million viewers.

    [44] On 7 February, an estimated 4,000 Beatles fans were present as Pan Am Flight 101 left Heathrow Airport. [51] Among the passengers were the Beatles on their first trip to the US as a band, along with Phil Spector and an entourage of photographers and journalists. [52] On arrival at New York's newly renamed John F.

    Kennedy International Airport, they were greeted by a crowd of 4,000 Beatles fans and 200 journalists. [53] A few people in the crowd were injured, and the airport had not previously experienced such a large crowd. [54] The band held a press conference where they met disc jockey Murray the K, then they were put into four limousines (one per Beatle) [55] and driven to New York City.

    On the way, McCartney turned on a radio and listened to a running commentary: "They have just left the airport and are coming to New York City. " [56] When they reached the Plaza Hotel, they were besieged by fans and reporters. [57]

  • ^ Schaffner 1978, p.
  • ^ Caulfield, Keith; Trust, Gary; Letkemann, Jessica (7 February 2014). "The Beatles' American Chart Invasion: 12 Record-Breaking Hot 100 & Billboard 200 Feats".
  • ^ Pawlowski 1990, pp.
  • ^ The Beatles 2000, p.

  • ^ "Being for the benefit of Mr.

  • ^ Gilmore, Mikal (23 August 1990). "Bob Dylan, the Beatles, and the Rock of the Sixties".

    Archived from the original on 19 February 2018.

  • ^ Pawlowski 1990, pp.

  • ^ a b c Lynskey, Dorian (28 September 2013). "Beatlemania: 'the screamers' and other tales of fandom". On 4 November, the Beatles sang before the Queen Mother and Princess Margaret at the Royal Variety Performance, sharing the large bill with non-pop acts including Marlene Dietrich and Harry Secombe.

    [36] Harrison expressed surprise to find the group sharing the limelight with such show business greats. "We're just four normal folk who have had a couple of hit records", he said. [37] Maureen Lipman attended a concert in Hull as a sceptic, but 50 years later she recalled her " road to Damascus moment" when Lennon sang " Money (That's What I Want)": "Someone very close to me screamed the most piercing of screams, a primal mating call … I realised with an electric shock that the screaming someone was me.

    I continued to scream for the next 40 minutes

    . The rest of the concert is a blur. " She heard that the arena "cleared away 40 pairs of abandoned knickers" from other young female fans, "and life, as I knew it, was never the same again".

    [38] The tour continued until 13 December, with stops in Dublin and Belfast, [39] and marked the "pinnacle of British Beatlemania", according to Lewisohn. [40] 1964–1965: International success [ edit ] First visit to the US and Ed Sullivan Show performances [ edit ]

  • ^ Stanley 2014, p.

    On 1 November, the Beatles began their fourth nationwide tour of 1963. [33] It produced much the same reaction from those attending, with a fervent, riotous response from fans everywhere they went. Police attempting to control the crowds employed high-pressure water hoses, and the safety of the police became a matter of national concern, provoking controversial discussions in Parliament over the thousands of police officers putting themselves at risk to protect the Beatles.

    [34] On the first tour date, at the Odeon in Cheltenham, the volume of sound from the screaming crowds was so great that the Beatles' amplification equipment proved unequal to it – the band members could not hear themselves speaking, singing or playing. [31] The next day, the Daily Mirror carried the headline "BEATLEMANIA! It's happening everywhere. [28] The Daily Telegraph published a disapproving article in which the scenes of adulation were likened to Hitler's Nuremberg Rallies.

    [30] [nb 3]

  • ^ Hibbert, Tom (June 1992). "Who the Hell Does Ringo Starr Think He Is?".

    Available at Rock's Backpages (subscription required).

    McCartney, Harrison, Swedish pop singer Lill-Babs, and Lennon on the set of the Swedish television show Drop-In, 30 October 1963

  • ^ a b c Szatmary, David P. Rockin' in Time: A Social History of Rock-and-Roll.

  • ^ a b c Hamilton, Jack (18 November 2013). "Did JFK's Death Make Beatlemania Possible?".