. " at number 85 on the magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Beatles Songs".   In a similar list compiled by Mojo in 2006, it appeared at number 64.
 In his commentary for the magazine, English singer Billy Bragg said that 1968 was when "our love affair with all things American began to turn sour", with the year marked by reports of US atrocities in Vietnam, the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy, the gesture of African-American athletes introducing Black Power politics at the Mexico Olympic Games, and Richard Nixon's victory in the US presidential race. Bragg added: "By opening [the White Album] with this wonderful inversion of Chuck Berry's Back In The USA, The Beatles made clear whose side they were on. Subversive or just mischievous? You decide. "  In 2018, the music staff of Time Out London ranked the song at number 26 on their list of the best Beatles songs.
 Political controversy and cultural significance [ edit ]
" for his Russian concert tours had contributed to the "jokey" song's standing as "a bit of an anthem now".  Author Ian MacDonald has described the song as "a rather tactless jest", given that the Soviet Army had recently invaded what was then called Czechoslovakia and thwarted that country's attempt to introduce democratic reforms.  [nb 7] Some members of the New Left also criticised the Beatles for this gesture.
 During the 1960s, the Beatles were officially derided in the Soviet Union as the "belch of Western culture". David Noebel, a longstanding critic of the Beatles' influence on Western youth, said that "The lyrics have left even the Reds speechless. " 
After the other Beatles urged him to return, Starr rejoined the group on 4 September to participate in the filming of a promotional clip for their " Hey Jude" single.  [nb 5] During a break in the filming, Marc Sinden (who appears in the film) recalls Lennon playing a song on his acoustic guitar. Filming started before we could ask what it was.
When it was later released, we realised it was Back in the USSR. "  Release and reception [ edit ]
 Donovan, the Scottish singer-songwriter who joined the Beatles in India, said that "Back in the U. " was one of the "funny little ditties" that McCartney regularly played at the ashram, adding that "of course, melodious ballads just poured out of him".  In a November 1968 interview, McCartney said the song was inspired by Berry's "Back in the U. " and was written from the point of view of a Russian spy returning home to the USSR after an extended mission in the United States.
 Mike Love of the Beach Boys, another student at the meditation retreat, recalled McCartney playing "Back in the U. " on acoustic guitar over breakfast in Rishikesh,  at which point he suggested to McCartney that the bridge section should focus on the "girls" in Russia,   in the style of the Beach Boys' " California Girls".  [nb 1] In his 1984 interview with Playboy magazine, McCartney said he wrote it as "a kind of Beach Boys parody" based around "Back in the U. " He added: In the 1980s McCartney was refused permission to perform in the USSR.
 In Barry Miles' 1997 book Paul McCartney: Many Years from Now, McCartney said that "Probably my single most important reason for going to Russia would be to play ['Back in the U. ']"  According to The Moscow Times, when McCartney finally got to play the song on his Back in the World tour in Moscow's Red Square in May 2003, "the crowd went wild".  When asked about the song before the concert, McCartney said he had known little about the Soviet Union when he wrote it and added: "It was a mystical land then. I always suspected that people had big hearts.
In his lyrics, McCartney transposed the patriotism of Berry's song into a Russian context.  He said that he intended it to be a "spoof" on the typical American international traveller's contention that "it's just so much better back home" and their yearning for the comforts of their homeland. McCartney said that, despite the lack of such luxuries in the USSR, his Russian traveller would "still be every bit as proud as an American would be".
 According to author Michael Gray, "Back in the U. " was the Beatles' sardonic comment on Berry's idealised Americana, which had become "deeply unfashionable" by the late 1960s.  [nb 2] Composition [ edit ]
" sequenced as the opening song.   The jet aircraft landing sound at the close of the track was cross-faded with the start of the next song, " Dear Prudence".  In 1969, Apple issued "Back in the U.
" as a single in Scandinavia, backed by Starr's composition " Don't Pass Me By".   In 1973, three years after the Beatles' break-up, the song was included on the band's double album compilation 1967–1970,  as one of only three tracks representing the White Album.  Like " Revolution" and " Piggies",  "Back in the U.
" prompted immediate responses from the New Left and the Right. Among the latter, the John Birch Society's magazine cited the song as further evidence of the Beatles' supposed pro-Soviet sentiments.   The line "You don't know how lucky you are, boys" left many anti-communist groups stunned.
 I just liked the idea of Georgia girls and talking about places like the Ukraine as if they were California, you know? It was also hands across the water, which I'm still conscious of. 'Cause they like us out there [in Soviet Russia], even though the bosses in the Kremlin may not. 
  Take 5 was chosen as "best".  During the overdubbing on the song, on 23 August, McCartney and Harrison also contributed bass parts, and both also added lead guitar parts.  According to author John Winn, the first overdubs were piano, played by McCartney; drums by Harrison, replacing Lennon's bass part from the previous day; and another electric guitar part.
 All three musicians added handclaps.  Other overdubs included McCartney's bass, Harrison on six-string bass, and Lennon playing a snare drum.  Harrison played the guitar solo in the instrumental break, while McCartney contributed a high-pitched, single-note solo over the final verse.
 MacDonald describes the musical arrangement as a "thunderous wall of sound".  For the sounds of the aircraft that appear on the track, a Viscount turboprop,  Scott created a tape loop from a recording stored in EMI's library.   Cultural historian Doyle Greene describes the song as a parody of Berry's "Back in the U. " "with a bridge that parodies the Beach Boys' 'California Girls'".
 According to Riley, while "Back in the U. " is usually viewed as a Beach Boys parody – specifically, a "send-up" of "California Girls" and " Surfin' U. " – its "more direct association" is with Berry's track. [nb 3] He adds that Berry's focus on commercialism is "relocated and mocked" such that "the joyous return to the Soviet homeland is sarcastic camp.
"  McCartney's lyrics also contain an allusion to Hoagy Carmichael's and Stuart Gorrell's " Georgia on My Mind". He sings about the female population of the Soviet Republic of Georgia, right after mentioning "the Ukraine girls" and "Moscow girls".  Recording [ edit ] Background and inspiration [ edit ]
 The opening lyrics refer to a "dreadful" flight back to the USSR from Miami Beach in the United States, on board a BOAC airliner. Driven by McCartney's uptempo piano playing and Harrison's lead guitar riffs,   the lyrics tell of the singer's happiness on returning home, where "the Ukraine girls really knock me out" and the " Moscow girls make me sing and shout". He invites these women to "Come and keep your comrade warm" and looks forward to hearing the sound of " balalaikas ringing out".
" as " Brian Wilson with sex appeal" and writes that the song's mocking tone and Communist setting had "the desired effect of inciting the [ire]" of America's John Birch Society, who misunderstood the lyrics' "sympathetic socialism".  In his autobiography, Good Vibrations, Mike Love writes: "'Back in the U. ' was a helluva song, and it's lasted longer than the country.
"  In his book on the White Album, David Quantick cites the song as an example of McCartney's standing as "a master of pastiche and parody", adding that "In lesser, feebler, hands, 'Back in the U. ' could have been a rotten comedy song, a weak parody tune, but McCartney – cocky, confident, and able to do almost anything musically – made it into something amazing. "  Quantick admires the three Beatles' musicianship and "hilarious" harmony vocals, and concludes: "The whole thing rocks – and rocks substantially more than the Beach Boys ever did.
", on 22 August 1968, Ringo Starr became tired of McCartney's criticism of his drumming on the song, and of the bad atmosphere generally,    and walked out, intent on quitting the group.  The other Beatles continued with the session, which took place at EMI Studios (now Abbey Road Studios) in London. Ken Scott, the band's recording engineer, later recalled that they created a "composite drum track of bits and pieces" in Starr's absence.
 [nb 4] Writing for the website Russia Beyond, Tommy O'Callaghan describes "Back in the U. " as a "parody that became a peace offering". He says that, just as the Beatles provided a source of unity with the West for contemporary Russian music fans, the band set out to mock the "new Western narrative" presented by both McCarthyism and the New Left rhetoric.
Aside from the send-ups of the Beach Boys, Berry's "flag-waving" song and Prime Minister Harold Wilson's pro-British campaign, O'Callaghan views the references to Russian girls as mocking the "perceived unsexiness" of Soviet culture and says that the song's true satirical qualities are in "its portrayal of Russians and Americans at parity".  Although the Beatles were never allowed to perform in the USSR, Elton John was permitted to visit the country in 1979 in a historic concert tour, which Billboard magazine referred to as the first there by an "out-and-out rock artist".
" as his closing song throughout the tour,  ignoring an official request after his opening show that he not do so.  Video from these concerts appeared in the documentary film To Russia with Elton.  Cover versions [ edit ] On 25 June 1976, the song was issued as a single by Parlophone in the UK to promote the compilation album Rock 'n' Roll Music.
  The B-side was " Twist and Shout",  making it the first EMI single by the Beatles to include a non-original composition.  [nb 6] It peaked at number 19 on the UK Singles Chart,  number 11 in Ireland,  and number 19 in Sweden.  EMI made a promotional film for the release, setting the song to footage of the Beatles visiting Amsterdam in 1964 and from their 1966 tour of West Germany.
 The single was subsequently included in the Beatles Singles Collection box set, released by EMI's World Division in December 1982, making it the 24th single in the series.  On 4 July 1984, the Beach Boys played "Back in the U. ", with Starr joining them as a special guest, during their Fourth of July concerts in Washington, DC and Miami.
 In Love's recollection, the "irony" of an Englishman being part of the celebrations for America's independence from Britain "was not lost on Ringo". Starr told a reporter: "Happy Birthday [America]. "  Personnel [ edit ]